Azerbaijani monuments in captivity: Shusha district
Shusha district is an administrative district in the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is located in the Karabakh range of the Lesser Caucasus. Its area is 290 km2 and its population is 29,700 people (01.01.2011). The center is the city of Shusha. The region has been under Armenian occupation since May 8, 1992.
Shusha city, Turshsu settlement and Malibeyli, Yukhari Gushchular, Ashagi Gushchular, Khalfali, Armudlu, Dukanlar, Hasanabad, Garabulag, Agbulag, Zamanpeyasi, Shushulu, Mirzaler, Gaybali, Lachinlar, Shirlan, Chaykend, Pashalar, Mamillar, Mamishlar , Safikhanlar, Khanligpe, Allahgulular, Hasangulular, Boyuk Galaderasi, Kichik Galaderasi, Goytala, Onverest, Zarisli, Nabilar, Saribaba, Dashalti, Nagylar, Khudaverdilar, Imanlar, Turabkhan villages.
The surface is mountainous. The highest peak is Mount Great Kirs (2725 m).
Prior to the occupation, there was a sanatorium-resort complex of Union importance in the region. Livestock has played a key role in the region's economy. Before the occupation, Shusha branches of Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute, Azerbaijan Petrochemical Institute, 24 secondary schools, 6 out-of-school educational institutions, medical school, 8 children's music and art schools, cultural-educational technical school, music technical school, agricultural technical school, technical vocational school, forest There was a health school, a house of culture, a cinema, 5 museums, an art gallery, a club, a library, a central district hospital, 11 midwives, a sanitary and epidemiological station, a children's sanatorium, an ambulance station, a city polyclinic and a dental clinic.
Before the occupation, there were 248 state-protected historical monuments in the region.
Lower Govharaga Mosque
Govharaga (real name Govharnisa), the daughter of the last khan of Karabakh Ibrahim khan, was also one of the famous philanthropists of her time.
The Ashagi Govharaga mosque, built at his expense, was built in Shusha in 1874-1875 by the architect Karbala Safikhan Garabaghi.
The mosque was included in the "List of immovable historical and cultural monuments of national importance" by the decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Azerbaijan No. 132 dated August 2, 2001. During the occupation of Shusha in May 1992, the building and minarets of the Ashagi Govharaga mosque were severely damaged by fire from armored vehicles.
People's Artist of the USSR Bulbul's house-museum in Shusha until 1992 was a branch of his memorial museum in Baku. The house-museum consists of a small yard, two rooms and a balcony.
Rare and very valuable documents about Bulbul's creative, research, pedagogical and social activities were displayed here. On the facade of the museum there is a memorial plaque made of bronze by the sculptor of Bulbul Khanlar Ahmadov, depicting the portrait of his childhood.
As a result of the occupation of Shusha by the Armenian Armed Forces, more than 6,000 exhibits of the museum were destroyed and those that could be taken were transported to Armenia. The statue of Bulbul shot by Armenian savages is now located in the yard of the Azerbaijan National Museum of Art.
Property of Pilgrim Slaves
The building of Haji Gulu in Khoja Marjanli neighborhood was built in 1851. The three-storey palace, built in the national style, had 46 rooms and 2 large halls. One of these halls is depicted in the work of Russian artist VV Vereshchagi, who visited Shusha in 1865. During the Armenian occupation of Shusha in 1992, the property of Haji Gulu was shelled and its walls destroyed.
The house of Khurshudbanu Natava
The two-storey house belonging to the famous Azerbaijani poet Khurshudbanu Natavan was considered one of the historical residential buildings of the XVIII-XIX centuries located in Shusha. Currently, this house is in a dilapidated condition.
The architect of the mosque of the same name, built in the Mamayi neighborhood of Shusha in the 19th century, was Karbala Safikhan Garabaghi. Reminiscent of the roofs of ordinary rectangular residential buildings in Shusha, the roof of the Mamayi Mosque has a "bouquet" for the call to prayer. Mamayi Mosque functioned as a house of poetry during the Soviet era. The mosque has two floors.
Museum-mausoleum complex of Mullah Panah Vagif
Architect A.V. contributed to the construction of the museum-mausoleum complex of the famous Azerbaijani poet Molla Panah Vagif. It was started in 1977 on the basis of the project of Salamzade and EI Kanukov. The complex was opened in January 1982. The complex was built on the tomb of the great poet near the Cidir plain, a prominent place in Shusha. Here M.P. About 80 exhibits reflecting the life of Vagif in Shusha were also exhibited. The opening of the complex was attended by the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, well-known literary and cultural figures.
As a result of the occupation of Shusha by the Armenian Armed Forces in May 1992, the building of the complex and dozens of exhibits exhibited there were destroyed, and possible exhibits were transported to Armenia.
Saatli Mosque was built in 1883 by the architect Karbala Safikhan Garabaghi on the site of the mosque and madrasah built by Panah Ali Khan in 1759 in Shusha. The neighborhood was named after Saatli Mosque.
The general structure of the minarets of the mosque is similar to the minarets of the Upper Govhara and the Aghdam Friday Mosque. Saatli Mosque is one of the last mosques in Shusha to be built in Karabakh.
During the occupation of Shusha by the Armenian Armed Forces in May 1992, the minaret of the mosque was destroyed by artillery fire.
Shusha Fortress is a fortress wall surrounding the city of Shusha in Azerbaijan. The fortress protected the city from foreign interference and has long been a symbol of invincibility. During the march of Agha Mohammad Shah Gajar to the South Caucasus, the fortress was under siege for a long time, but it was not possible to capture it.
The area is strategically very convenient. Thus, Shusha fortress is located in a high mountainous area. The highest point of the Shusha plateau is 1600 meters above sea level, the lowest point is about 1300 meters. This high mountain plateau is surrounded by deep cliffs that descend to the Dashalti and Khalfali rivers.
Karabakh khan Panahali khan, taking into account the unfavorable geographical position of Bayat fortress and Shahbulag fortress, which he had built earlier, decided to restore Shusha fortress in 1753 and the center of Karabakh khanate was moved here. After the restoration of the fortress, it was called Panahabad for a long time.
Shusha fortress is one of the most beautiful pearls of Azerbaijani architecture. The castle was built in the style of the Arran School of Architecture. Local stones and lime-egg yolk mixture were mainly used in the construction of the fortress. The castle had four gates. Ganja Gate is distinguished from them by its high architectural features. The castle has circular security towers. A bridge with high architectural qualities, which is also known as the Bridge of the Castle, was built near the castle, connecting it with the outside world. The names of three of the gates that provided Shusha's connection to the outside world - Ganja, Agoghlan and Iravan - have survived to our time. So far, it has not been possible to determine the name or location of the fourth door. It is possible that this gate was abolished when Ibrahimkhalil khan rebuilt the castle walls.
Shusha Music School
Founded on October 10, 1932, Shusha Music School is located in the house of the famous Azerbaijani poetess Khan gizi Natava. This school was also the first children's music school established in Azerbaijan. The initiative to open a music school belonged to the famous Shusha singer Bulbul.
After the occupation of Shusha by the Armenian Armed Forces in May 1992, the Shusha Music School was destroyed.
Shusha Realni school
On September 20, 1881, the first secondary school in Shusha, the 6th grade Realni school, was founded. For the first time, 159 students were admitted to this school, which consisted of preparatory and three main classes.
Shusha was considered an exemplary educational center of the Realni school period. In this school, despite the prohibitions of religion, he studied the languages of other nations, and special attention was paid to the teaching of literature of other nations. Famous Azerbaijani writers Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev and Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli graduated from this school.
After the occupation of Shusha in May 1992, Armenian vandals burned down the Real school and turned it into a ruin.
Shusha city history museum
Shusha city history museum had a history and ethnography profile. The museum displayed rare photographs reflecting the history of Shusha, documents from the XIX-early XX centuries, schemes, models and photographs of houses of historical significance built in Shusha in the XVIII-XIX centuries. There were interesting stands and exhibits about famous Azerbaijani intellectuals, enlighteners, singers, musicologists and writers from Shusha.
Valuable works of art, jugs, pot sets, pottery, woven carpets, rugs, and artistic weaving samples were kept in Shusha and surrounding villages. The museum continued to operate until May 1992, when the city of Shusha was destroyed by the occupying Armenian army. It was not possible to save many of the exhibits.
House-museum of Uzeyir Hajibeyov
The house-museum of the great Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov in Shusha was established in 1959. The house-museum functioned until the occupation of Shusha by Armenian invaders in 1992. Along with household items belonging to the Hajibeyov family, Uzeyir Bey's personal belongings, photos, books, books dedicated to him and donated to the museum occupied an important place in the museum's exposition.
Anniversaries and anniversaries of U.Hajibeyov's birth were regularly celebrated at the state level in the museum. In 1985, the 100th anniversary of Uzeyir Hajibeyov was widely celebrated by UNESCO. He visited Hajibeyov's house-museum in Shusha, where big jubilee events were held.
On May 8, 1992, after the occupation of Shusha by Armenian aggressors, the museum ceased its activities. As a result of the efforts of the museum management, the museum exhibits were not allowed to be occupied or taken over by the enemy. The exhibits of the museum are currently kept in the funds of U.Hajibeyov's house-museum in Baku.
Upper Govharaga Mosque
The Upper Govhar Agha Mosque was built in 1883-84, ie about eight years after the Ashagi Govhar Agha Mosque, at the expense of Govhar Agha by the architect Karbala Safikhan Garabaghi. This mosque, which has a plan of approximately square shape (21.30 x 26.20 m), generally retains the construction idea of Aghdam Juma and Ashagi Govhar aga mosques. One of the main construction criteria of the architect is the balcony for women on the second floor, installed along the side walls of the hall, and the glazing opposite the altar. Although the minaret of the Upper Govhar Agha Mosque is made of natural limestone, as in previous mosques, the geometric ornaments used on its body do not correspond to the minaret decorations of the Lower Govhar Agha Mosque. They mainly continue the artistic idea of geometric ornaments on the minarets of the Aghdam Juma Mosque. The attic roof of the minarets is made of wood. Its end is decorated with a crescent-shaped figure.
This mosque, which has been used as a history museum since 1969, was destroyed by Armenian vandals after the occupation of Shusha in May 1992.
Real estate historical and cultural monuments of national importance
Fortress walls (1750), Panah khan's palace (XVIII century), Black Boyukkhanim tower (XVIII century), Heydar tomb (XIX century), Haji Gulu's mansion (XIX century), Natava's house (XIX century), Asad bey's house (XIX century), Upper Govharaga Mosque (built in 1768-1769, overhauled in 1837-1838), Lower Govharaga Mosque (built in XVIII century, overhauled in 1874), Two-storey caravanserai ( XIX century), Mehmandarovs' mansion complex: mosque, small dwelling house, large dwelling house (XVIII century), Ibrahim khan's tower (XVIII century), Isa spring (XIX century), Ibrahim khan's castle (XVIII century).
SHUSHA STATE HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL RESERVE
House of Uzeyir Hajibeyov (XIX century), Khanate Autonomous Caravanserai (XVIII century), Caravanserai of Aga Gahraman Mirsiyab oglu (XIX century), House of Zulfugar Hajibeyov (XIX century), Saatli mosque
(Madrasa where the first lesson was taught by MP Vagif) (XIX century), Ganja gate (XVIII century), A. Hagverdiyev's house (XVIII century), Kazanchi church (XVIII century), Y.V. Chamanzaminli's house (XVIII century), Yukhari Govharaga mosque madrasa (XVIII century), Safarov brothers caravanserai (XVIII century), Sadigja's house (XVIII century), Ugurlu bey's house (XVIII century), Khan's palace (XVIII century), Fresh water bath ( XVIII century), the house of Seyid Shushinsky (XIX century), MP Vagif's tomb (XX century), Gasim bey Zakir's house (XVIII century), Ashagi Govharaga mosque madrasa (XVIII century), Behbudovs' house (XVIII century), Firudin bey's house (XVIII century), M.M. House of the Nawwab (18th century), House of the Nightingale (19th century), F.B. Kocharli's house (XIX century), Huseyn bey's house (XVIII century), Kechachi oglu Muhammad's house (XIX century), Caravanserai (XVIII century), Garay Asadov's house (XVIII century), S.S. House of Akhundov (XIX century) House of J. Qaryagdioglu (XVIII century),
Kurgan (Bronze Age), Shusha and Shushakend stone box tombs (Late Bronze and Early Iron Age), Shusha cave camp (Stone Age), Stone Box necropolis (Iron Age), Necropolis (Late Bronze and Early Iron Age), etc.
Rovshan Novruzoglu, political scientist
Asif Marzili, Journalist
Edited by Translator Lead Author Salih KURT
From "Contrasts": As you can see, historical monuments and cultural samples, not a single Armenian name and symbol can be found among famous historical figures. So, how can Shusha and Karabakh be Armenian lands? It should be noted that the Armenians were moved to Karabakh after the Iran-Russia war and the Turkmenchay peace treaty signed in 1828. Armenians also built a memorial complex in Khankendi in 1978 on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the resettlement to Karabakh. However, against the background of false land claims that began in 1988, these monuments were immediately demolished. Because it proved once again that Karabakh could never be an Armenian country!
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